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SELECTBIO Conferences Lab-on-a-Chip and Microfluidics Europe 2018

Lab-on-a-Chip and Microfluidics Europe 2018 Agenda

Co-Located Conference Agendas

Lab-on-a-Chip and Microfluidics Europe 2018 | Organ-on-a-Chip, Tissue-on-a-Chip Europe 2018 | Point-of-Care Diagnostics & Biosensors Europe 2018 | 

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Tuesday, 5 June 2018


Conference Registration, Materials Pick-Up, Morning Coffee, Tea and Breakfast Pastries

Session Title: Conference Opening Plenary Session

Plenary Session Chairman: Richard Spero, Ph.D., Co-Founder and CEO, Redbud Labs: Advanced Microfluidic Technologies


Amy  ShenKeynote Presentation

Nanoplasmonic Biosensors: From Innovative Materials to Multimode Sensing with Integrated Microdevices
Amy Shen, Professor, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology, Japan

Gold nanostructures are a highly attractive class of materials with unique electrochemical and optical sensing properties. Recent developments have greatly improved the sensitivity of optical sensors based on metal nanostructured arrays. We introduce the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) sensors and describe how its exquisite sensitivity to size, shape and environment can be harnessed to detect molecular binding events. We then describe recent progress in three areas representing the most significant challenges: integration of LSPR with complementary electrochemical techniques, long term live-cell biosensing and practical development of sensors and instrumentation for routine use and high-throughput detection. As an example we will demonstrate a novel refractive index and charge sensitive device integrated with nanoplasmonic islands to develop nano-metal-insulator-semiconductor (nMIS) junctions. The developed sensor facilitates simultaneous detection of charge and mass changes on the nanoislands due to biomolecule binding. A brief insight on microcontact printing to functionalize proteins on nanoplasmonic sensors will also be discussed. The developed nanosensors can readily be adopted for multiplexed and high throughput label-free immunoassay systems, further driving innovations in biomedical and healthcare research.


Martyn BoutelleKeynote Presentation

Towards Wearable Real-Time Clinical Monitoring Using Microfluidic Devices
Martyn Boutelle, Professor of Biomedical Sensors Engineering, Vice Chair Department of Bioengineering, Imperial College London, United Kingdom

Modern acute critical care medicine is increasingly seeking to protect vulnerable tissue from damage by monitoring the patterns of physical, electrical and chemical changes taking place in tissue – so called multimodal monitoring. Such patterns of molecular changes offer the exciting possibility of allowing clinicians to detect changes in patient condition and to guide therapy on an individualized basis in real time. Microfluidic lab-on-chip devices coupled to tissue sampling using microdialysis provide an important new way for measuring real-time chemical changes as the low volume flow rates of microdialysis probes are ideally matched to the length scales of microfluidic devices. In this presentation, I will describe the combination of miniature electrochemical sensors and biosensors with 3D printed microfluidic devices for transplant organ and patient monitoring. Concentrations of key biomarker molecules can then be determined continuously using either optically or electrochemically, using amperometric, potentiometic and array sensors.  Wireless devices allow analysis to take place close to the patient. Droplet-based microfluidics, by digitizing the dialysis stream into discrete low volume samples, both minimizes dispersion allowing very rapid concentration changes to be measured, and allows rapid transport of samples between patient and analysis chip. This talk will overview successful design, optimization, automatic-calibration and use of both continuous flow and droplet-based microfluidic analysis systems for real-time clinical monitoring, using clinical examples from our recent work.


Gregory TimpKeynote Presentation

Silicon Nanotechnology Meets Biology (Smaller and Wetter is Better)
Gregory Timp, Keough-Hesburgh Professor of Electrical Engineering & Systems Biology, The University of Notre Dame, United States of America

According to Moore’s law, the scaling of silicon integrated circuits is supposed to reach the 5 nm-node sometime after 2020, although the schedule is still problematic due to the astronomical cost and atomically precise line-rules. On the other hand, biology has been performing cost-effectively using proteins the size of 5 nm (and smaller) that fold with atomic precision for 4.28 billion years now—it is a robust and proven technology, albeit wet. In this talk, it is argued that there is still “plenty of room at the bottom” for improving performance if silicon nanotechnology is adapted to biology. With silicon nanotechnology it is now within our grasp to create an interface to biology on a nanometer-scale. Three examples of such interfaces are proffered. The first is a liquid flow cell that works like an envelope made from 30 nm-thick silicon nitride membranes, which can hold and sustain living cells in medium and yet fits inside a Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope (STEM). In a STEM, the liquid cell can be used to visualize and track live cell physiology like a phage infecting a bacterium with nucleic acids at 5 nm resolution. The second is a nanometer-diameter pore sputtered through a silicon nitride membrane 10-nm-thick that can be used to transfect cells precisely with nucleic acids to affect gene expression in them and, under different bias conditions, detect protein secretions from single cells with single molecule sensitivity. The secretions inform on the cell phenotype and offer a molecular diagnosis of disease. Finally, the third interface is a sub-nanometer-diameter pore, which is about the size of an amino acid residue, in either silicon dioxide or silicon nitride membranes ranging from 6 to 10 nm-thick.  Sub-nanopores like this have been used to read the primary structure of a protein, i.e. the amino acid sequence, with low fidelity, but with single molecule sensitivity, vastly outstripping the sensitivity of conventional methods for sequencing such as mass spectrometry. Taken altogether, the prospects are dazzling for a new type of integrated circuit that incorporates biology with state-of-the-art silicon electronics.


Morning Coffee Break and Networking in the Exhibit Hall


Steve SoperKeynote Presentation

Extracellular Vesicles (EVs) and Cell Free DNA (cfDNA) as Blood-based Biomarkers: Plastic-based Microfluidics for their Enrichment and Analysis
Steve Soper, Foundation Distinguished Professor, Director, Center of BioModular Multi-scale System for Precision Medicine, The University of Kansas, United States of America

While there are a plethora of different blood-based markers, EVs are generating significant interests due to their relatively high abundance (~1013 particles per mL of blood) and the information they carry. EVs contain a diverse array of nucleic acids, such as mRNA, lncRNA, and miRNA that can be used for disease management. In addition to EVs, cfDNA also are biomarkers that can be used to help manage different disease states using the mutations they possess that can have high diagnostic value. In spite of the relatively high abundance of cfDNA in diseased patients (~160 ng/mL), the extraction and enrichment of cfDNA has been inefficient, even by commercial kits, due to the low abundance of the tumor bearing DNA fragments (<0.01%) and the short nature of these fragments, especially cancer-related cfDNA (as small as 50 bp). In this presentation, we will discuss the design, fabrication and analytical figures-of-merit of a microfluidic device that can serve the dual purpose for the affinity-based selection of EVs and the solid phase extraction of cfDNA directly from plasma using the same device. The microfluidic is made from a plastic that can be injection molded to produce high quality devices at low cost. For EVs, the device is made cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) is UV/O3 activated to allow for the efficient immobilization of affinity agents to the surface of the device. In the case of cfDNA, the device is made from COC as well, but is only UV/O3 activated (i.e., no affinity agents used). Information will be provided as to the ability to molecularly profile the cargo contained within the affinity-selected EVs, in particular mRNA expression profiling. We will also discuss the use of this microfluidic to isolate with high recovery cfDNA from plasma samples with size selection capabilities. The isolated cfDNA could be queried for mutations using an allele-specific ligation detection reaction at a mutant to wild-type ratio <0.1%.


Roger KammKeynote Presentation

Microphysiological Models Relying on Emergence of Multi-Cellular Engineered Living Systems
Roger Kamm, Cecil and Ida Green Distinguished Professor of Biological and Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), United States of America

Recent work from many labs has demonstrated the unique capability of cells placed in 3D culture to self-organize into functional units and organ-like systems.  In some cases, pluripotent cells can be induced to differentiate down independent pathways, leading to an organoid.  In others, interacting units can be generated, often from iPS cells, and ‘engineered’ to interact in a way that recapitulates certain aspects of in vivo function or disease.  Such models have tremendous potential both to gain new insight into disease processes and for moderate throughput drug screening.  In this talk I will describe several models developed in our lab including a neuromuscular junction, blood-brain barrier, and vascularized skeletal muscle, addressing some of the design principles they have in common, the future potential, and barriers to progress.


Moran BercoviciKeynote Presentation

Microscale Flow Patterning
Moran Bercovici, Associate Professor, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering; Head, Technion Microfluidic Technologies Laboratory, Technion, Israel Institute of Technology, Israel

The ability to manipulate fluids at the microscale is a key element of any lab-on-a-chip platform, enabling core functionalities such as liquid mixing, splitting and transport of molecules and particles. Lab-on-a-chip devices are commonly divided in two main families: continuous phase devices, and discrete phase (droplets) devices. While a large number of mechanisms are available for precise control of droplets on a large scale, microscale control of continuous phases remains a substantial challenge. In a traditional continuous-flow microfluidic device, fluids are pumped actively (e.g. by pressure gradients, electro-osmotic flow) or passively (e.g. capillary driven) through a fixed microfluidic network, making the device geometry and functionality intimately dependent on one another (e.g. DLD, inertial mixer, H-separator, etc.). The advent of on-chip microfluidic valves brought more flexibility in routing fluids through microfluidic networks, adding a dynamic dimension to the static geometrical network. However, the number of degrees of freedom of valve-based systems is restricted by their dependence on bulky pneumatic lines (regulators, pressure systems, controllers), which are difficult to scale down in size and cost. In this talk I will present our ongoing work leveraging non-uniform EOF and thermocapillary flows to control flow patterns in microfluidic chambers.  By setting the spatial distribution of surface potential or a spatial temperature distribution, we demonstrate the ability to dictate desired flow patterns without the use of physical walls. We believe that such flow control concepts will help break the existing link between geometry and functionality, bringing new capabilities to on-chip analytical methods.


Networking Lunch in the Exhibit Hall -- Meet the Exhibitors and View Posters

Session Title: Emerging Themes in Microfluidics Technologies


Thomas LaurellKeynote Presentation

Acoustofluidics Enables Advanced Microfluidic Cell Handling and Enrichment of Extracellular Vesicles
Thomas Laurell, Professor, Lund University, Sweden


Microchannel Mixing and Multifractal Dimensions
Miron Kaufman, Professor of Physics, Cleveland State University, United States of America

The geometry of mixing structures developed in several types of microchannels is quantified by using entropic and fractal measures. Insights into mixing mechanisms and on optimizing microchannels will be discussed.


Little Things Factory GmbHAll in One – Advanced Technologies For Complex Low Cost Microfluidic Devices in Glass, Silicon and Quartz
Klaus Kadel, Business Development, Little Things Factory GmbH

The Little Things Factory covers the whole portfolio to set up new functionalities for microfluidic systems in glass and we describe recent innovations in this field. The talk will introduce new possibilities to combine microfluidics with hermetically sealed electrical connectors for various applications that needs electrodes in contact with fluids or electrodes isolated from fluids.


Afternoon Coffee Break and Networking in the Exhibit Hall


Roberto OsellameKeynote Presentation

Integrated Optofluidic Devices for Manipulation and Imaging of Cells
Roberto Osellame, Professor, Politecnico di Milano; Senior Researcher, Institute for Photonics and Nanotechnologies (IFN) – National Research Council (CNR), Milan, Italy

Single cell analysis aims at unravelling the biological complexity due to the well-recognized diversity in cell populations. The integration of optical forces with microfluidic networks, in so-called optofluidic chips, allows advanced cell manipulation and characterization. In addition, the development of microscopy on a chip for the 3D tomography of single to few cells agglomerates paves the way to rapid analysis of a large quantity of samples for drug screening and personalized medicine.


Microbes in Microfluidics
Winnie Edith Svendsen, Associate Professor, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark

In this talk I will address how we work with microorganism such as bacteria and yeast in microfluidic devices.  I will address the challenges of handling bacteria in microfluidic systems and controlling yeast reproduction for aging studies.


Centrifugal Microfluidic Automation of …
Nils Paust, Head of Division Microfluidic Platforms, Hahn-Schickard-Gesellschaft für Angewandte Forschung eV, Germany

Centrifugal microfluidics enables miniaturization automation and parallelization of biochemical workflows. In this talk I will focus on …


Jaap den ToonderKeynote Presentation

Microfluidic Flow Control for LOAC: Bio-Inspired Engineering
Jaap den Toonder, Professor and Chair of Microsystems, Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands

Control of fluid flow at small length scales (typically < 1 mm) i.e. “microfluidics”, is important for many applications. Examples are devices for healthcare diagnostics, in which complex tasks of (bio-)fluid manipulation and detection need to be performed; organ-on-a-chip devices in which suitable micro-environments for multicellular tissue structures need to be  created; water quality monitoring chips for continuous detection of bacteria, algae and chemicals; and manipulation of fluids droplets over surfaces. We are developing new technologies for active control of microfluidic flow in these applications. In doing this, we are inspired by nature in which a variety of microfluidic manipulation principles can be recognized.


Joshua EdelKeynote Presentation

Single Molecule Screening
Joshua Edel, Professor, Imperial College London, United Kingdom

Analytical Sensors play a crucial role in today’s highly demanding exploration and development of new detection strategies. Whether it be medicine, biochemistry, bioengineering, or analytical chemistry the goals are essentially the same: 1) improve sensitivity, 2) maximize throughput, 3) and reduce the instrumental footprint. In order to address these key challenges, the analytical community has borrowed technologies and design philosophies which has been used by the semiconductor industry over the past 20 years. By doing so, key technological advances have been made which include the miniaturization of sensors and signal processing components which allows for the efficient detection of nanoscale object. One can imagine that by decreasing the dimensions of a sensor to a scale similar to that of a nanoscale object, the ultimate in sensitivity can potentially be achieved - the detection of single molecules.


Networking Reception in the Exhibit Hall with Beer and Wine. Engage with the Exhibitors, View Posters in a Relaxed Setting at the De Doelen Rotterdam


Close of Day 1 of the Conference

Wednesday, 6 June 2018


Morning Coffee, Breakfast Pastries and Networking

Session Title: Methodologies and Approaches in Lab-on-a-Chip Device Development and Commercialization


Diffusion-induced Interfacial Phenomena in Microfluidics
Anderson Shum, Associate Professor, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong

Interfacial phenomena are ubiquitous in both natural systems and technologies. In this talk, I will discuss interfaces formed between two immiscible aqueous liquids. Since molecules can diffuse through these interfaces relatively easily, massive diffusion can happen across them. Together with the control provided by microfluidic devices, interfacial phenomena induced by diffusion can be systematically investigated. I will demonstrate how control of osmotic diffusion enables manipulation of emulsion droplet morphology as well as polyelectrolyte particles and capsules. These diffusion-controlled formation processes should also be applicable in more macroscopic, non-microfluidic settings, and hence have great potential to fabricate new encapsulating structures.


Oliver SchmidtKeynote Presentation

Microtubular NEMS for On- and Off-Chip Microfluidic Applications
Oliver Schmidt, Professor & Director, Leibniz-Institut für Festkörper- und Werkstoffforschung, Germany

Microtubular MEMS with outstanding properties are self-assembled into fully functional and integrative microtubular architectures. This makes them attractive for a broad range of applications and scientific research fields ranging from novel hybrid heterostructure devices to 3D microsystems both on and off the chip. Microtubular MEMS are exploited to construct ultra-compact and ultra-sensitive advanced electronic circuitry, sensors and optofluidic components around fluidic channels towards the implementation of a lab-in-a-tube system. They are also useful to study basic mechanisms of single cancer and stem cell migration, growth and mitosis in realistic 3D confined environments.  Off-chip applications include biomimetic microelectronics for regenerative cuff implants and the development of hybrid microbiorobotic motors for paradigm shifting reproduction technologies.


Scale-up and Sustainability for Large and Small Microfluidic Laboratories
Maiwenn Kersaudy-Kerhoas, Associate Professor, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, United Kingdom

The rapid translation of research from bench to bedside, as well as the generation of commercial impact, has never been more important for both academic and industrial researchers. We propose low-capital investment and sustainable rapid-prototyping solutions for almost all LOAC applications, with potential to accelerate microfluidic research and technology acceptance dramatically.


Morning Coffee Break and Networking in the Exhibit Hall


Victor UgazKeynote Presentation

Title to be Confirmed.
Victor Ugaz, Professor & Holder of the Charles D. Holland ’53 Professorship, Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A&M University, United States of America


Microfluidic ChipShop GmbHMultimaterial Integration for Lab-on-a-Chip Devices
Holger Becker, Chief Scientific Officer, Microfluidic ChipShop GmbH

Highly integrated microfluidic devices usually consist out of components made out of different materials such as thermoplastic polymers for the cartridge body, membranes and filters, blister pouches for liquid reagents and/or silicon dies for sensors. The presentation will discuss challenges and solutions for developing and manufacturing  of such multimaterial cartridges.


High Resolution 3D Printing Inside a Chip
Aleksandr Ovsianikov, Professor, Additive Manufacturing Technologies, Technische Universität Wien, Austria

3D printing opens exciting perspectives towards rapid engineering of complex 3D structures for microfluidic applications. In this context, multiphoton lithography (MPL) is an outstanding approach, since photosensitive material formulations and cells are delivered by perfusing the channels, thus enabling 3D printing within already assembled microfluidic chips. The latter aspects implies that different materials, construct geometries and cell types can be tested with the same set of chips without changing their initial design or fabrication process. In addition MPL offers high spatial resolution, unmatched by other 3D printing approaches, and can produce features down to sub-100 nm level directly in the volume of the material, without the necessity to deposit it layer by layer. An increasing portfolio of available materials enables utilization of the versatile capabilities of MPL, from producing complex volumetric 3D structures by means of cross-linking, to creating void patters within hydrogels already containing living cells. In this contribution, our recent progress on MPL for microfluidic applications and the development of according materials will be presented.


3D-Printed Microfluidic Systems Built From Functional Modular Elements
Noah Malmstadt, Associate Professor, University of Southern California, United States of America

The integration of functional components into microfluidic systems is necessary for building compact analytical devices. Optical detection and measurement, electromechanical fluid switching, active mixing, and magneto- and electrophoretic separations all require the integration of components on top of the underlying fluidic architecture. There has been significant work towards integrating such functional components by including them directly in the microfabrication process. This approach, however, leads to expensive fabrication workflows that are often limited to a narrow set of applications. To overcome these limits, we are designing a microfluidic architecture that is easily adaptable to a wide variety of applications. This architecture is based on 3D-printed elements that can be assembled into analytical devices. Functional components are integrated into these elements; the structures are printed to directly accommodate off-the-shelf components including photodiodes, heaters, sensors, and fiber optic fittings. We have demonstrated the utility of this approach by assembling a system capable of performing automated ELISA assays from 3D-printed blocks with integrated functional components.


Networking Lunch -- Meet the Exhibitors and View Posters


Frontier in Direct Observation and Visualization of Molecular Interactions
Gijs Wuite, Professor, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Netherlands

The genetic information of an organism is encoded in the base pair sequence of its DNA. Many specialized proteins are involved in organizing, preserving and processing the vast amounts of information on the DNA. In order to do this swiftly and correctly these proteins have to move quickly and accurately along and/or around the DNA constantly rearranging it. In order to elucidate these kind of processes we perform single-molecule experiments on model systems such as restriction enzymes, DNA polymerases and repair proteins. The data we use to extract forces, energies and mechanochemistry driving these dynamic transactions. The results obtained from these model systems are then generalized and thought to be applicable to many DNA-protein interactions. In particular, I will report on a new single molecule methods. I’ll introduce Acoustic Force Spectroscopy (AFS). With AFS we extend the force-spectroscopy toolbox with an acoustic manipulation device that allows exerting acoustic forces on tethered molecules. AFS is a Lab-on-a-chip device consisting of a flow cell of two glass plates with a fluid chamber in between and a piezo element glued on top. While applying an alternating voltage to the piezo element, forces from sub-pN to hundreds of pNs are exerted to thousands of biomolecules in parallel, with sub-millisecond response time and inherent stability. AFS distinguishes itself by its relative simplicity, low cost and compactness, which allow straightforward implementation in lab-on-a-chip devices. I’ll discuss the application of this technique to DNA-protein interaction as well as for antibody-protein interaction detection and for its use to quantify cell adhesion.


A Novel Fabrication Method for Single-Layer Microfluidic Devices with Abrupt Depth Variations under Non-Clean-Room Conditions
Zhibin Yan, Associate Professor, South China Normal University, China

A novel and low-cost method for rapid prototyping of single-layer microfluidic PDMS devices with distinct structures from micrometres to millimetres under non-clean-room conditions. This method can significantly facilitate the fast evaluation of proof-of-concept in microfluidic researches and mass production for commercialization applications.


Tissue Microprocessing: Shaping Sub-nanoliter Volumes of Liquids on Tissue Sections for Multimodal Analysis
Govind V Kaigala, Research Staff Member, IBM Research Laboratory-Zurich, Switzerland

In contrast to standard microfluidics, which are typically closed, we are developing a scanning, non-contact microfluidic technology that can shape liquids in the "open space" over surfaces. This technology utilizes a microfluidic probe (MFP) having microfabricated structures for localizing a liquid of interest on a surface using hydrodynamic flow confinement. MFP permits patterning surfaces with proteins and other biomolecules in an additive and subtractive manner, forming complex gradients on surfaces, and interacting with cells on surfaces. With flow confinement operating at volumes smaller than 1 nanoliter, a few cells can be targeted in a human tissue section for the specific staining of disease markers.  This confinement concept has also been scaled for targeting 1000’s of cells. Flow confinement and efficient use of chemicals can be further optimized using a concept called "hierarchical" hydrodynamic flow confinement.  I will show how this family of liquid scanning probe devices is evolving as a bioanalytical tool to alter the physics and chemistry of biological interfaces at the micrometer to centimeter-length scales. I will also propose concepts pertaining to tissue microprocessing encompassing local phenotyping for interrogating tumor heterogeneity and spatially resolved molecular profiling which may contribute to the multi-modal analysis of critical biopsy samples in the context of next-generation pathology.


LSC-PM: A Biomimetic Approach to Increase Solar Harvesting for Synthetic Chemistry
Timothy Noel, Associate Professor, Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands

In this lecture, we will discuss a novel device integrating the luminescent solar concentrator (LSC) concept with photomicroreactors (LSC-PM), allowing the direct use of solar light in photochemistry without the need for any intermediate energy conversion. This device is capable of capturing direct and diffuse sunlight, converting it into a narrow wavelength and delivering it to the embedded microchannels.


Rapid Prototyping in Microfluidics: New Perspective by New Materials
Bastian Rapp, Principal Investigator and Head of NeptunLab, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany

Microfluidics is a very important discipline for many disciplines including, among others, synthetic and analytical chemistry, biochemistry and biology. However, the design of most microfluidic systems has remained largely unchanged since the introduction of soft lithography. In academia, microfluidic systems made from polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) have become the de-facto standard. These are usually created in a replication process from a photolithographically structured layer of photoresist. However, in many applications fast concept-to-chip intervals are required for efficient experimental throughput and optimization. This is where 3D printing and additive manufacturing (AM) can make a significant contribution. We recently introduced “Computer Aided Microfluidics (CAMF)” a process that allows the conversion of digital chip layout to a testable physical structure in less than a day [1]. Using digital models allows a streamlined manufacturing process with digital models first being evaluated by numerical simulation before being transferred to a physical structure in a one-step manufacturing process. We recently expanded the material choice for CAMF to include glass [2] (which is created by sintering from photocurable glass prepolymers) and thermoplasts, most notably polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) for which we created photostructurable precursors. This allows the rapid manufacturing of microfluidic systems in materials which have a long history in microfluidics and have been thoroughly investigated. We will demonstrate the advantages of this prototyping method and its potential use in many aspects of life sciences and analytics.


Fluids for Theranostic Cell-based Analytics
William G Whitford, Strategic Solutions Leader Bioprocess, GE Healthcare Life Sciences, United States of America

Theranostics is employing newer technologies including microfluidic-based or 3D printed analytics requiring the maintenance of animal cell viability and phenotype. These require a robust source of appropriate, validated and regulated maintenance fluids or culture media.

Add to Calendar ▼2018-06-05 00:00:002018-06-06 00:00:00Europe/LondonLab-on-a-Chip and Microfluidics Europe 2018Lab-on-a-Chip and Microfluidics Europe 2018 in Rotterdam, The NetherlandsRotterdam, The