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SELECTBIO Conferences Extracellular Vesicles (EVs): Technologies & Biological Investigations

Fatah Kashanchi's Biography

Fatah Kashanchi, Professor and Director of Research, Lab of Molecular Virology, George Mason University

For the past eighteen years Kashanchi lab has been interested in understanding the mechanism of viral gene expression in human viruses and how the virus and the host control the dynamics of fundamental machineries needed for viral replication and/or host survival. They also have ample experience with biochemical pathways that leads to transcription and chromatin remolding using in vitro reconstituted machineries. These complexes with epigenetic modifications utilize host signaling events and therapeutic targets that control viral replication. In recent years, they have also started focusing on Extracellular vesicles (i.e., exosomes) mainly from latent virally infected cells. These cells remain in the body for a long period of time can be extended to the life of a person (i.e., CNS cells). These latent cells produce exosomes that carry markers of the infection including RNA and protein sequences specific to a given virus. The lab for the first time showed that viral release and exosome release have overlapping biogenesis in the ESCRT pathway. For instance, HIV-1 latent cells utilize ESCRT-I for viral release, and ESCRT-II for exosomal release. Using in vitro and in vivo (both patient samples and animal models), the lab has found that exosomes from HIV-1 infected cells carry short non-coding RNAs (i.e., TAR) which regulate TLR3 and other pathways in the recipient cells. Similar results were also observed from other neuro-tropic RNA viral infections including HTLV-1, Ebola, RVFV, SARS, and Zika infection.

Fatah Kashanchi Image

Future Directions of EVs and Viruses

Wednesday, 15 December 2021 at 16:15

Add to Calendar ▼2021-12-15 16:15:002021-12-15 17:15:00Europe/LondonFuture Directions of EVs and VirusesExtracellular Vesicles (EVs): Technologies and Biological Investigations in Coronado Island, CaliforniaCoronado Island,

EVs naturally are bioactive containers for delivering various bioactive molecules between cells. A growing body of evidence indicates that such EVs are released from virus-infected cells and transfer viral components between cells including DNA, RNA and proteins, as well as viral receptors mediating entry into recipient cells. The released EVs constitute a range of markers that can serve as biomarker for viral infection both in vitro and in vivo.  These cells release EVs with distinct cargos, which differs from healthy cells and viral infection alters EV loading and biogenesis in donor cells.  The main mechanism of viral cargo release through EVs is alteration in the autophagic pathways, including microautophagy, chaperone-mediated autophagy, macroautophagy, and secretory autophagy.  Specially, secretory autophagy has been shown to be responsible for the secretion of these EVs containing parts of the virus or  EVs that contain fully infectious virions.  Multiple RNA and DNA virally infected cells including HIV-1; CHIKV; HBV; EBV; SV40; PV; IAV; DENV; ZIKV; HTLV-1; HSV-1; KSHV; and MHV-68 utilize alteration of autophagy for their cargo release.  Examples of some of the RNA and DNA viruses that utilize degradative or secretory autophagy in relations to homeostasis or disease will be discussed.

Add to Calendar ▼2021-12-13 00:00:002021-12-15 00:00:00Europe/LondonExtracellular Vesicles (EVs): Technologies and Biological InvestigationsExtracellular Vesicles (EVs): Technologies and Biological Investigations in Coronado Island, CaliforniaCoronado Island,