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SELECTBIO Conferences The Space Summit 2019

The Space Summit 2019 Agenda


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Monday, 14 October 2019

00:00

Tiny Spaces for the Infinite Space: Continuous-Flow- and Plasma Chemistry-based Technology Systems for Space Manufacturing?
Volker Hessel, Professor, School of Chemical Engineering, The University of Adelaide, Australia

This talk likes to give a perspective on the use of continuous-flow- and plasma chemistry-based Technology Systems for space manufacturing. Main message is: space manufacturing is “off-earth manufacturing” - the advanced technologies will have dual use: also on earth, e.g. in deep sea, in dry lands, and other disruptive scenarios.

00:00

Jana StoudemireConference Chair

Title to be Confirmed.
Jana Stoudemire, Director, Commercial Innovation, Space Tango, United States of America

00:00

Marc GiulianottiConference Chair

Title to be Confirmed.
Marc Giulianotti, Senior Associate Program Scientist, International Space Station U.S. National Laboratory, United States of America

00:00

AlleviUnderstanding the Human Body In Space: Bringing 3D Bioprinting to the ISS
Ricky Solorzano, CEO, Allevi

There is still so much to learn about biology, especially how gravity plays a role on the human body. The amount of things we can discovery from doing research on the ISS is limitless and needs to be explored! To that end, Allevi has explored the possibilities of placing some of its technology in space and believes it has a clear path to do so by partnering with Made In Space. Made in Space, as the first company to 3D print in space has understood all of the requirements to test, qualify, and launch 3D printing technology onto the ISS. Given this unique advantage, Allevi has developed a bioprinting extruder that can easily swap into the AMF to begin printing either advanced biomaterials for regeneration or biomaterials along with cells for biological experimentation. This will provide a unique advantage to scientists around the world to discovery new things in space.

00:00

Modeling the Effects of Spaceflight on the Human Heart Using Stem Cell-derived Cardiomyocytes
Arun Sharma, Research Fellow, Harvard Medical School, United States of America

With extended stays aboard the International Space Station (ISS) becoming commonplace as humanity prepares for exploration-class space missions, the need to better understand the effects of microgravity on cardiac function during spaceflight is critical. However, primary human heart tissues, which would be useful for in vitro studies on heart function, are difficult to obtain and maintain. As a model system, we utilized cardiomyocytes (CMs) derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) to study the effects of microgravity on human cardiac function and gene expression at the cellular level. We derived hiPSCs from three healthy volunteers and produced hiPSC-CMs using a high-efficiency differentiation protocol. We cultured hiPSC-CMs in a microgravity environment aboard the ISS for approximately one month, during which weekly media changes were conducted. We analyzed the gene expression, structure, and function of space-flown and groundside control hiPSC-CM samples using RNA-sequencing, immunofluorescence, calcium imaging, and contractility assessment. This study represents the first time that hiPSC technology has been used to study the effects of spaceflight on human cardiomyocyte function and demonstrates that microgravity affects human cardiomyocyte function on the cellular level.

00:00

Modeling Effects of Microgravity on Kidney Function with a Human “Kidney Chip”
Edward Kelly, Associate Professor, University of Washington, United States of America

We have developed a 3D microphysiological system (MPS) model of the human kidney that recapitulates the functions of the proximal tubule as well as responses to toxic insults. To understand the effects of microgravity on kidney function, we sent our MPS to the ISS. Functional readouts included production of urinary biomarkers of acute kidney injury and metabolism of vitamin D after extended (>7 days) culture in microgravity.

00:00

Biofabrication in Space: New Approaches for Bioprinting Technology
Yusef Khesuani, President, Vivax Bio, Russian Federation

Today, there are three main 3D bioprinting technologies: extrusion, inkjet, and laser-based bioprinting. These methods have common limitations such as slow speed and inability of creation 3D constructs with complex geometry. Therefore, new approaches like acoustic or magnetic bioprinting using patterned physical fields for predictable cells spreading will evolve. The main idea of the concept is using microgravity as a co-factor of bioprinting technology. This concept means using scaffold-free, nozzle-free, and label-free (without using magnetic nano particles) approach so called “formative” biofabrication which has the edge over classical bottom-up additive manufacturing. This technology could be commonly used for space radiation studies to provide long-term manned space flights, including the Moon and Mars program. 3D bioprinter «Organ.Aut» has been sent to ISS and successfully bioprinted human cartilage tissue and murine thyroid organ construct.

00:00

NGIS Systems for Commercialization in Low Earth Orbit
Derek Hodgins, Director of Business Development, Advanced Programs, Northrop Grumman Innovation Systems, United States of America

The NGIS Cygnus spacecraft provides a unique platform to support ISS research and technology for Government and commercial users.  Cygnus is the first step toward creation of a sustainable commercial market with future systems providing synergy with NASA exploration and a modular multi-mission architecture to support future research and technology platforms.

00:00

Danilo TagleKeynote Presentation

The NIH-CASIS Coordinated Program in Tissue Chip Systems for Translational Research in Space
Danilo Tagle, Associate Director For Special Initiatives, Office of the Director, National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences at the NIH (NCATS), United States of America

NCATS has partnered with the International Space Station U.S. National Laboratory (ISS-National Lab) formerly known as the Center for the Advancement of Science in Space (CASIS), to collaborate on deployment of tissue chip technology for biomedical research use on the space station). Translational research at the ISS National Lab provides unprecedented opportunities to study the effects of a microgravity environment on the human body. Symptoms of accelerated aging, such as muscle deterioration, osteoporosis, reduced cardiopulmonary function and immune deficiency, occur after prolonged exposure to microgravity. It also has been observed that these conditions are reversible when astronauts return to Earth. Tissue chip projects at the ISS National Lab that model various health concerns under microgravity will contribute to our understanding of human physiological changes associated with aging and could reveal novel molecular targets that can be translated towards improving human health on earth.

00:00

Human Cartilage-Bone-Synovium Chip to Study Post-Traumatic Osteoarthritis Pathogenesis and Treatment on Earth and in Space
Alan Grodzinsky, Professor of Biological, Electrical and Mechanical Engineering, Director of the MIT Center for Biomedical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), United States of America

Acute joint injuries from sports, exercise or accident-related trauma often progress to post-traumatic Osteoarthritis (PTOA), comprising ~12% of all OA cases. Such joint injuries can cause mechanical damage to cartilage combined with an inflammatory response associated with the synovial lining of the joint capsule. Together, these events lead to cartilage and subchondral bone pathologies including cell death, tissue degradation, neo-angiogenesis, osteophyte and cyst formation and synovial fibrosis. Astronauts are known to sustain a higher rate of exercise-related joint injuries, during their mission period. Since PTOA commonly affects young and otherwise healthy individuals, knee replacement is not a desirable option. Acknowledging the urgent need to identify disease-modifying therapeutics to ameliorate degenerative evolution of OA/PTOA, we carried out this study to (1) simulate aspects of acute joint injury biology on earth and in space using a human Cartilage-Bone-Synovium coculture model (CBS-MPS), (2) to investigate the potential of selected therapeutics to reduce cell death and tissue degradation, and (3) to utilize the Techshot Multi-Use Variable-g Platform (MVP) to study PTOA-related pathogenesis and management on the ISS.

00:00

Immunological Senescence in Space Affects Stem Cell Behavior and Function
Sonja Schrepfer, Professor of Surgery, University of California-San Francisco, United States of America

Aging is associated with dysregulation of the immune response, which is also termed “immunosenescence.” Each part of the immune system is influenced to some extent by the aging process. However, adaptive immunity seems more extensively affected, and it is especially the T cells that are altered. In fact, the number and proportion of late-differentiated T cells (so called TEMRA cells), is higher in the elderly than in the young and their accumulation may contribute to the enhanced systemic pro-inflammatory milieu commonly seen in elderly individuals. We do not know exactly what causes these observed changes, but an understanding of the possible causes is now beginning to emerge. Spaceflight causes a suite of negative health effects that may be comparable to immunosenescence, which seems to be a key regulator of the regenerative capacity of tissue- and organ-specific stem cells. Specifically, studies examining the effects of bone healing (by mesenchymal stromal cells; MSCs) and vascular regeneration (by endothelial progenitor cells; EPCs) were performed using tissue mimics on chip to represent “semi-3D” architectures.

00:00

Michael RobertsKeynote Presentation

Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine in Space: How the ISS National Lab is Your Gateway to Translational Innovation
Michael Roberts, Deputy Chief Scientist, International Space Station US National Laboratory, United States of America

The International Space Station is one of humankind’s greatest technical achievements—orbiting some 400 km above our planet and traveling at over 28,000 kilometers per hour. But even more importantly, the ISS has continuously enabled a human presence in space where astronauts have lived, worked, and conducted cutting edge R&D for 19 years. Aside from housing astronauts and hosting research facilities that push the boundaries of technology and innovation, the space station and the ISS National Lab have also been home to over 2,500 science experiments that leverage the unique space environment to benefit life on Earth and explorers traveling off of Earth. The ISS National Lab is available to a myriad of government, academic, and commercial researchers interested in looking at their science questions through a new lens. Among the new research programs in microgravity are multiple investigations in stem cells, organoids, organs on chips, regenerative medicine, tissue engineering, and 3D bioprinting that are already accelerating the pace of discovery to push us beyond the limits of our imagination to address health problems here on Earth.

00:00

Biofabrication of 3D Tissue Models For Disease Modeling and Drug Screening
Marc Ferrer, Director, 3D Tissue Model Laboratory, NIH/NCATS, United States of America

Biofabrication of architecturally defined and physiologically relevant human tissues is emerging as a key technology for drug discovery.  The expectation is that 3D biofabricated tissues produced with human iPSC-derived cells will provide functionally and physiologically relevant assay platforms to test small molecules during drug discovery and help narrow the current gaps between current simplistic in-vitro cell assays, non-predictive in-vivo animal models, and human clinical trials.  Tissue biofabrication integrates advances in tissue engineering technologies and cell biology, with the development of three-dimensional (3D) bioprinters, biocompatible polymers and hydrogels, and methods to validate the morphology and function of human tissues.  I will be presenting some of the work on going at the 3D Tissue Model Laboratory at NCATS to implement rapid, scalable, and reliable biofabrication of architecturally and physiologically defined functional human tissue models in multiwell-plate platforms for disease modeling and drug screening.

00:00

BioFabrication Facility, Tissue Printing on the International Space Station
Eugene Boland, Chief Scientist, Techshot, Inc., United States of America

Techshot is excited to present initial findings from the maiden flight of its BioFabrication Facility operated aboard the ISS after its launch on the SpaceX CRS-18 mission.  The company is exploiting the sustained microgravity effects on bioinks first characterized on June 14, 2016 when it printed the first neonatal heart ventricle in zero gravity using adult human stem cells aboard a parabolic flight aircraft.  For this first technology demonstration flight aboard the ISS, Techshot printed multiple test structures, as well as structural cardiac tissue.  This muscularized tissue could be placed within a patient’s damaged cardiac tissue and be inosculated into the coronary blood flow and regain muscular tone.  These early demonstrations are the precursor for future microgravity whole organ printing investigations.  This 3D bioprinting capability on the ISS will lead to significant commercial advancements in the healthcare industry, while helping mankind explore beyond low Earth orbit.

00:00

Human Cardiovascular Progenitor Cell Culture on the International Space Station
Mary Kearns-Jonker, Associate Professor, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, United States of America

Microgravity and the spaceflight environment influences the transcriptome, function and differentiation of cardiovascular progenitor cells.  Our research team studied the effect of spaceflight on human cardiovascular progenitor cells which were flown aboard the International Space Station for 30 days and recovered live to Earth.  Spaceflight and the microgravity environment was found to impact mechanotransduction, cardiogenesis, cell cycling, DNA repair, and signaling events.  Microgravity exposure was associated with enhanced proliferative potential and migration as well as elevated expression of paracrine factors.  Neonatal human cardiovascular progenitor cells cultured in space demonstrated enhanced stemness.  This presentation will discuss our findings and the relevance of these results for stem cell based applications on Earth and cardiovascular progenitor cell function in space.

00:00

Impact of Microgravity on Cardiac Cells Derived From Stem Cells
Chunhui Xu, Associate Professor, Emory University School of Medicine, United States of America

Cardiac muscle cells derived from stem cells have the potential to be used to repair damaged heart tissue and to model cardiac disease.  Cardiac muscle cells can be derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells using factors that regulate cardiogenesis.  However, practical use of these cells faces challenge in efficient cell production.  We have found that combining tissue engineering and microgravity can improve the quality of cardiac cells derived from stem cells.


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